therefore, in accordance with the invention, the means for withding sponge iron from retorts which are heated externally and which carry out the carbothermic process of reduction of iron ore, whereby the sponge iron is withdn at the bottom by lateral displacement, is characterized by the fact that the withdal means has a minimum of three worm screw means which work at the same speed but in differing directions and which are substantially conical and lie below the outlet of the retort.
kinetics of iron ore reduction by coal and charcoal direct reduced iron dri or sponge iron is a good substitute of scrap for making steel in electric arc furnace, basic oxygen furnace etc. which resulted in rapid and vigorously in the country instead of natural gas based shaft furnace or retort process.
the sponge iron process the longest established of these processes is the sponge iron process, the leading example of a family of processes involving solid state reduction of an oxide. in the process, selected magnetite fe3o4 ore is mixed with coke and lime and placed in a silicon carbide retort.
producer of sponge iron as it covers 16% of global output. sponge iron is used as feedstock and a recognized alternative to steel scraps in iron and steel making processes. with the availability of seven trust materials, high demand of sponge iron and less payback period, sponge iron industry has emerged as a profitable venture. however, due to lack
in modern times, sponge iron has found increasing use in the manufacture of wrought iron and as substitute of scrap during steel making. sponge iron is chemically more active than steel or iron millings, turnings or wire strips. sponge iron is produced as granular material or as sintered mass, depending
the process of sponge iron making aims to remove the oxygen from iron ore. the quality sl/rn technology is a coal based rotary kiln direct reduction process
the sponge iron process requires re-heating after the oxidation to raise the temperature to about 800 c, as reduction is an exothermic process. the heat is supported by lean gas combustion.
in the horizontal retort the amalgam is placed in iron trays divided into compartments by partitions. in either case, the retorted metal is prevented from adhering to the iron, either by laying it on three or four thicknesses of paper, the ashes of which remain beneath the amalgam, or by covering the iron trays with a coating of whitening.
direct reduced iron, also called sponge iron, is produced from the direct reduction of iron ore to iron by a reducing gas or elemental carbon produced from natural gas or coal. many ores are suitable for direct reduction. direct reduction refers to solid-state processes which reduce iron oxides to metallic iron at temperatures below the melting point of iron. reduced iron derives its name from these processes, one example being heating iron ore in a furnace at a high temperature of 800 to 1,200
under the retort process the ore is reduced discontinuously in a container by gas flowing through. in the shaft furnace process the lumpy ore is reduced by gas working in a counter current.
sponge iron process leads to the formation of the powder which contain small grains of non-uniform shape. so, such non-uniform shaped grains can lead to the difficulty in the entire process. so, such non-uniform shaped grains can lead to the difficulty in the entire process.
means for withding sponge iron from externally heated retorts whereby the sponge iron is withdn at the bottom of the retort including staggered inlet and outlet means and a minimum of three worm screw means moving at the same speed but in differing directions moving the sponge iron from the inlet to outlet means.
my process consists briefiy in the heating to the desired temperature in retorts of the iron bearing constituent mixed with the necessary proportion of a reducing agent, such as coal, hydrocarbon oils, or the like, together with an excess of carbonaceous material, such as coke, semicoke, as i termit, which will be defined hereinbelow, or other materials, which is not utilized to reduce the iron bearing constituent, but is utilized to.
retort process of sponge iron pmetro.it. rotary kiln process of making sponge iron c. rotary kiln process of making sponge iron 2.1 historical background the production of steel began in ancient times but because of the complexity and slow speed of the ancient process, they could not.
process description. in the lane generator water gas was used to heat the retorts up to 600-800 c after which water gas-air was used in the retorts. in the steam-iron process the iron oxidizes and has to be replaced with fresh metal, in the lane hydrogen producer the iron is reduced with water gas back to its metallic condition, after which the process restarts.
seven trust material general the major seven trust materials required for production of sponge iron by the rotary kiln process are: sized graded iron ore and non- coking coal. limestone, in small quantities, is also required to scavenge the sulphur. strength and granulometry are the two important physical requirements.
a carbothermic process and apparatus for converting iron ore directly to sponge iron in a vertical retort is described. a reaction charge of iron ore, reducing agent, and additives if employed is char
ores for direct reduction have to meet stringent specifications with high percentage of fe and low content of tramp elements. pellets are used mainly for this purpose. the output of all dri processes is sponge iron sponge iron is also hot briquetted to hbi .dri combined with an eaf is considered as an efficient steel making technique.
and vigorously in the country instead of natural gas based shaft furnace or retort process. in order to accept the potential of the fact, it is rather imperative to understand the basic mechanism involved in dr process using non-coking coal/charcoal as reductant. 1.2 various processes which produce dri are: a coal based processes :